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The History of the 4004
PDF document. By Federico Faggin. The 4004 was the world's first microprocessor and is the first example of a complex random-logic circuit built using silicon-gate MOS technology. "The 4004 was mostly a random logic circuit, a type of integrated circuit where there are many circuit blocks, each different from the others. This is in contrast with memory circuits which use only a few circuit blocks repeated over and over again. Microprocessor is the name for the central processing unit of a computer (CPU) integrated into a single chip of silicon. In the late 1960’s microprocessors were considered to be a future possibility, and a few companies were developing CPUs partitioned in several chips. However, only a single-chip CPU could achieve the speed, power dissipation and cost necessary to address many applications; and in 1970 the microprocessor was still a dream" ( Federico Faggin ). The difficulty was in devising how to design all the needed circuits to be fast, with low power dissipation, and small enough to fit in a single chip that could be manufactured at low cost. The key inventions that made the 4004 possible was the MOS Silicon Gate Technology (SGT).
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