|The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO, by Eric Raymond|
|HISTORY AND OVERVIEW OF CSNET||Search for a title, author or keyword|
HISTORY AND OVERVIEW OF CSNET
PDF document. The first steps in networking. In the 1970s, the sharing of expensive computing resources, such as mainframes, was causing a bottleneck in the development of new computer science technology, so engineers developed networking as a way of sharing resources. Before computers were small and personal, they were large and centralized machines ( mainframes ) that were shared by many users operating remote terminals. While having all of the computer power in one place had many disadvantages, one benefit was that all users were connected because they shared the central computer. The original networking was limited to a few systems, including the university system that linked terminals with time-sharing computers, early business systems for applications such as airline reservations, and the Department of Defense's ARPANET. Begun by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) in 1969 as an experiment in resource-sharing, ARPANET provided powerful ( high-bandwidth ) communications links between major computational resources and computer users in academic, industrial, and government research laboratories. Inspired by ARPANET's success, the Coordinated Experimental Research Program of the Computer Science Section of NSF's Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate started its own network in 1981. NSF ( National Science Foundation ) is an independent federal agency created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended. Its aim is to promote and advance progress in science and engineering research and education in the United States. Called CSNET ( Computer Science Network ), the system provided Internet services, including electronic mail and connections to ARPANET. In addition, CSNET was responsible for the first Internet gateways between the United States and many countries in Europe and Asia. In 1986 more than 165 university, industrial, and government computer research groups belonged to CSNET. Usage charges plus membership fees ranged from $2,000 for small computer science departments to $30,000 for larger industrial members. CSNET is a "logical net", a high-level communication environment spanning several physical nets, including the ARPANET, Phonenet, and X.25 public packet-switched networks (e.g., Telenet). While CSNET was growing in the early 1980s, NSF began funding improvements in the academic computing infrastructure. A fundamental part of this project was the creation of NSFNET backbone. NSF envisioned a general high-speed network, moving data more than twenty-five times the speed of CSNET. This paper review the history, the goals, the organization, the components, and the status of CSNET. This is a preprint of a paper to be presented in a session about the CSNET Project at the ACM SIGCOMM symposium on data communications, March 8-9, 1983. This document is relevant to undertand the relationship between the first developed networking protocolos: "The second factor was DARPA’s decision to proceed with 'internet protocols' ( IP ) that permit a host in one net to communicate with a host in a different net. With the internet protocols, CSNET could be regarded as a logical organization of users on different nets. DARPA offered to make its new protocol software ( TCP/IP ) available to the CSNET project ... CSNET would include subnets based on ARPANET, X.25 nets, and Phonenet ( the MMDF service ). The internet protocols would hide these components from their users. CSNET would develop an interface between ARPANET’s protocol software ( IP ) and the X.25 public networks ( initially Telenet ); this would make the standard ARPANET services available to non-DARPA hosts."
|HISTORY AND OVERVIEW OF CSNET||Disclaimer: this link points to content provided by other sites.|